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Как испанский спутник стал заложником конфликта РФ и Украины

Как испанский спутник стал заложником конфликта РФ и Украины

Испанцы требуют от «Космотраса» вернуть предоплату за запуск своего спутника. Российская компания не вывела его на орбиту из-за конфликта с Украиной. Сейчас дело передано в суд.

Испанское предприятие Hisdesat, владелец спутника Paz («Мир»), сообщило, что в начале марта Международный арбитражный суд в Париже принял к производству его иск к российской Международной космической компании «Космотрас» на сумму в 15 миллионов евро. Эти деньги были выплачены в свое время российской стороне в качестве предоплаты за вывод испанского спутника на околоземную орбиту. Однако «Космотрас» после нескольких лет проволочек, так и не смог осуществить проект, а теперь отказывается вернуть предоплату, равную 80 процентам стоимости запуска.

Утраченные иллюзии

«Paz должен стать первым испанским искусственным спутником», рассказал DW представитель министерства обороны Испании, которое владеет 30 процентами акций Hisdesat. По его словам, этот спутник двойного — гражданского и военного — назначения, стоимостью в 160 миллионов евро, был построен в Германии корпорацией Airbus Defence&Space еще в 2013 году. Его запуск, запланированный первоначально на 2014 год, «с нетерпением ожидали как в армии и пограничной службе, так и в гражданских учреждениях Испании — географы, астрономы, экологи, моряки и так далее».

Однако, продолжил представитель Минобороны, «к нашему глубочайшему сожалению, Испания пока не стала космической державой: спутник до сих пор на орбиту не выведен» — пылится в ангаре в мадридском аэропорту Барахас. Аппарат «морально устаревает, а частные инвесторы проекта терпят большие убытки, не получая дивидендов от его эксплуатации, да и хранение спутника обходится недешево». И это при том, что Hisdesat своевременно заключил соглашение с российским «Космотрасом», а также с Рособоронэкспортом. Спутник должна была вывести на орбиту с космодрома Ясный в Оренбургской области украинская ракета-носитель «Днепр».

Кто виноват?

Собеседник DW считает, что спутник не был запущен по причине российско-украинского конфликта, начавшегося в 2014 году. Так, испанцам известно, что именно Россия инициировала прекращение сотрудничества с Украиной в разработке совместного проекта «Днепр». В декабре 2015 года командующий российскими ракетными войсками стратегического назначения Сергей Каракаев заявил, что эта программа приостановлена по решению руководства. Его высказывание широко освещалось в российской и международной прессе.

Перед тем, как окончательно отказаться от подписанного в 2013 году контракта с россиянами, Hisdesat, по утверждению представителя Минобороны, «пытался все же избежать скандала и судебного разбирательства».

Российской стороне, во-первых, предлагалось все же произвести запуск, исходя из того, что договоренности с испанцами были достигнуты задолго до введения запрета в отношении «Днепра». Во-вторых, россиян просили использовать какой-либо иной носитель, не попавший под запрет. В конце июля 2016 года директор по маркетингу «Космотраса» Евгений Солодовников признал в интервью российской прессе, что «со сроками запуска аппарата имеются сложности», но исключил расторжение контракта с испанцам и обещал «решить все проблемы».

Не совсем типичный случай

Однако проблемы так и не были решены, посетовал сотрудник Минобороны Испании. Ну а теперь россияне отказываются вернуть деньги, поскольку они якобы были потрачены на подготовку запуска, а осуществить проект не удалось «не по вине компании, а в результате форс-мажора: по причинам независящим от «Космотраса».

Подобная позиция и вынудила Hisdesat обратиться в парижский суд. Иск, поданный 28 февраля, был принят к производству. «Одновременно, мы подписали соглашение с американской компании Space X, которая обязалась отправить наш спутник в космос до конца 2017 года», — резюмировал представитель оборонного ведомства Испании.

Со своей стороны, профессор международного права Мадридского университета Даниэль Крус считает историю вокруг спутника «не совсем типичной». Комментируя ситуацию по просьбе DW, он констатировал, что «Космотрас», «похоже, действительно отказался от проекта не по своей воле». Однако в свете международного права, «его убытки должна покрыть не потерпевшая сторона, в данном случае Hisdesat, а российские власти, наложившие по политическим мотивам запрет на осуществление предоплаченного контракта».

 
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