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Стволовые клетки помогли «вырастить» желудок

Стволовые клетки помогли "вырастить" желудок

Американские учёные сделали рекордный прорыв в вопросе изучения возможностей и, главное, уникальных способностей стволовых клеток. Группа специалистов из Медицинского центра при детской больнице в Цинциннате (штат Огайо) завершила работы по воссозданию настоящего желудка человека. Биологическим материалом для гениального исследования стали так называемые плюрипонентные стволовые клетки.

Особенности этого вида живой клеточной материи известны не так давно. Это чуть ли не единственный биототип, который может обрести форму любых клеток организма человека. Именно эту способность решили использовать в своём смелом эксперименте заокеанские учёные. Но при этом исследователи продвинулись ещё дальше в изучении столь экстраординарных возможностей. Так, медики выяснили, что пусковым механизмом самого процесса, который получил броское название «In vivo», являются сложные факторы работы стволовых клеток. В частности, с помощью их сигнальной системы молекул американцы смогли вырастить из этих плюрипонентных «участников» сразу комплекс различных комбинаций, что позволяет воссоздавать целые структурные конструкции клеточных типов.

Однако для того, чтобы из этих сочетаний получился настоящий орган, необходимы ещё дополнительные условия. Речь идёт о таком факторе, как создание трёхмерной структуры. Чтобы уточнить сам механизм такого соединения, учёным пришлось поломать голову в течение двух лет, пока, наконец, они приблизились к Истине. За это время авторы открытия проштудировали сотни книг о периоде эмбрионального развития пищеварительного тракта. И только потом было решено в лабораторных условиях попробовать имитировать этот начальный процесс, внеся в него частичные коррективы.

Результат оказался сенсационным. Всего за месяц американские учёные вырастили сразу несколько мини-желудков. Их диаметр был примерно три миллиметра. Базовые части, появившиеся в чашках Петри, именовали как желудочные органоиды, поскольку они полностью напоминали по своему составу настоящие органы пищеварения человека. Однако кое-какие отклонения у выращенных орагноидов всё же есть, что не позволяет их называть точной копией.

Между тем, американские исследователи считают, что даже в таком виде эти «мини-желудки» могут быть использованы в научных экспериментах по изучению болезней пищеварения и самой глобальной — язвы желудка. Кроме того, при определённых условиях, из них реально получить настоящие аналогии органов.

 
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