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Ученые все ближе к массовому производству чудо-материала — графена

Ученые все ближе к массовому производству чудо-материала — графена

Тончайший в мире чудо-материал — графен — полученный еще в 2004 году в Манчестерском университете, до сих пор остается недоступным для коммерческого использования. А ведь он может и должен произвести революцию в мировой энергетике.

Графен состоит из одного слоя атомов углерода, будучи при этом в 200 раз прочнее стали и неизмеримо легче. А главное его свойство — высочайшая электропроводимость, которая делает графен лучшим материалом для аккумуляторов.

Предполагается, что его использование сделает любые батареи чрезвычайно емкими и долгоживущими. И самые суперсовременные литий-ионные аккумуляторы окажутся ненужными. Однако есть одна огромная проблема — экономически оправданное промышленное производство графена.

В последние годы исследователи потратили миллиарды долларов, чтобы удешевить изготовление этого материала, но пока большого успеха не добились. Хотя многие институты находятся на пороге прорыва, отмечает ресурс Oil Price.

Например, в шведском университете Linköping ученые обнаружили, что способность графена сохранять заряд значительно повышается, если особым способом создать дефекты на совершенной поверхности графена, основанного на кремниевом карбиде. Правда это открытие находится на экспериментальной стадии и, увы, никак не помогает упростить процесс производства.

Механический метод отслоения, который изначально применили исследователи Манчестерского университета, слишком медленный и чересчур дорогостоящий для промышленного применения. Один графеновый слой обходится в 1 тыс долларов, что делает его одним из самых дорогих материалов по Земле.

Существует еще метод химического парового осаждения (CVD), и еще три года назад себестоимость графена, полученного таким образом, составляла 100 тыс долларов за квадратный метр. Причем продукт получается с дефектами, негативно влияющими на его электропроводимость. Однако к сегодняшнему дню стоимость создания графена была снижена до 10 тыс — 20 тыс долларов за квадратный метр.

А исследователи Университета штата Канзас запатентовали процесс для высокопродуктивного производства графена путем детонации углеродсодержащего материала. Причем этот способ был найден случайно, в ходе экспериментов, связанных с другой темой.

Так что ученые не сдаются и все ближе подходят к тому, чтобы найти метод массового производства графена. Когда им это удастся, аккумулирование электроэнергии станет потрясающе эффективным.

 
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